Methylphenidate comes as a brand name version, Ritalin, to treat symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. It is a stimulant and a first-line medication for ADHD treatment. Ritalin is an oral medicine with its different formulations having varying onset and duration of action.
Ritalin blocks norepinephrine and dopamine neurons reuptake. It is a stimulant of piperidine and phenethylamine classes.
Methylphenidate, made in the year 1944, got approval for medical use in 1955 in the United States. It is a popular medication worldwide, with above 2.4 billion doses globally taken in 2013. The United States alone consumed about 80 % of this. Ritalin is available as both generic and brand medications.
Buy Ritalin online to treat narcolepsy and ADHD.
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder, causing overwhelming daytime sleepiness and uncontrollable sleep. Ritalin is effective in promoting wakefulness, performance, and vigilance. It also improves somnolence measured on standardized tests like Multiple Sleep Latency Tests.
Ritalin is the most widely used medication for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Taking behavioral modification therapies can have additional benefits for the patient. The dosage of Ritalin pills varies from person to person according to their effectiveness and tolerance.
Studies establish the short-term benefits and cost-effectiveness of Ritalin. Several studies, over the years, determine the effectiveness and safety of stimulants for people with ADHD. Approximately 70-80% of people who use Ritalin pills see improvements in ADHD symptoms. Children with ADHD who use Ritalin usually have a better relationship with their family members and peers, do well at school, are less impulsive and distractible, and have better attention spans.
Ritalin may also be useful for the “off-label” use in treatment-resistance cases of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. It may also improve depression in people with stroke, cancer, and HIV. However, the use of Ritalin pills for treatment-resistance depression is still controversial and not approved by the FDA.
Another “off-label” use of Ritalin is for individuals with terminal cancer to counteract opioid-induced somnolence, to treat depression, to increase the analgesic effects of opioids, and to improve cognitive functions.
A 2015 study shows that a therapeutic dose of Ritalin results in modest improvement in cognition, including episodic memory, working memory, and inhibitory controls in normal healthy adults. The cognition-enhancing effects of the medication occur through the indirect activation of both adrenoceptor alpha2 and dopamine receptor D1 in the prefrontal cortex. The medicine also improves task saliency, increase arousal, and improve performance on tedious or difficult tasks. Students usually take Ritalin to study by enhancing their performance through it.
Recreational use of medicine is to achieve Ritalin high. However, the studies of illicit stimulant use show that youngsters and adults abuse it for cognitive enhancement rather than recreational purposes.
Ritalin contraindicated for people with:
- Use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine
- Hypersensitivity to methylphenidate
- Known sensitivity to inactive ingredients of Ritalin
The FDA gives Ritalin a pregnancy C category. It is advisable for pregnant women only to use the medication when its benefits outweigh the potential risks. A study conducted in 2018 concludes that Ritalin is not teratogenic in rabbits and rats, and it’s not a major human teratogen.
The most common Ritalin side effects include dry mouth, appetite loss, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia, and nausea. Gastrointestinal effects include weight loss and abdominal pain or discomfort. Adverse effects on the nervous system include restlessness, agitation, akathisia, tics, irritability, fatigue, lethargy, drowsiness, and dizziness.
Cardiovascular side effects caused due to Ritalin are palpitations, increased or decreased heart rate, changes in blood pressure, and tachycardia.
Ritalin side effects also include ophthalmologic effects such as dry eyes, blurred vision, mydriasis, and diplopia.
Hypersensitivity reactions include skin rash, fever, and urticaria, but these are rare.
Contact a health care expert if any of these side effects occur and worsen or do not go away with time.